I encountered this weird problem twice. Here is the scenario in case that someone wants to regenerate the problem.
Created a note with some text and photos.
Saved the note.
Selected the note, opened the menu and selected share.
Got a message telling me that I don't have a permission to share the note (see the image)
Tried to open the note but got the message in the second image.
After reopening Evernote, the note completely disappeared!
How can I recover it?
This seems a bug in Evernote. I found that trying to share a note by pressing the Share button from inside the note issues a message telling that thenote needs to be synced first. However, trying to share the note by marking it and selecting Share from the menu gives this problem.
P.S. Syncing my notes didn't solve the problem.