Agreed. Evernote, please remove the mandatory phone number for 2FA. As for U2F. Modern password managers also generate 2FA (TOTP) codes. They also offer cloud syncing making you independent of devices. Funnily, there is an inconsistency in their policy. You need premium for SMS 2FA. With basic you still need SMS for setup. BUT: during login you can select "help with 2FA" and there you can send a verification SMS, even with a basic account!
As far as I know, Google Authenticator is just a normal TOTP generator. So if you select "Google Authentnicator" in evernote, you should be able to scan the QR code with any TOTP app or manually copy the Authenticator Key (string). I myself am using a password manager with 2FA (Bitwarden) and was able to set it up using the option "Google Authenticator" in evernote setup.