I don't know whether it's blamed for the update of the iOS version of Evernote, but indeed I got the same situation on macOS. When I edit a note using "Helvetica Neue" with 14 on the macOS client of Evernote, it would display in a strange way on the iOS client with a much smaller font. When I change it using "Aa Small" on iOS version, it's indeed Helvetica Neue 16 in the macOS client. I'm not sure it's an issue of macOS client update or iOS version update. And BTW it seems there's no official way to report a bug, which is a bit of ridiculous.
macOS client version: 7.0.2, iOS client version: 8.3.356604